Door Hardware FAQ’s
Mortise locks offer better door security. If you are considering what is the most secure lock to install on your front entry then definitely consider using a mortise lock? Mortise locks offer a higher level of security than a tubular latch.
If you’re looking to replace the locks and entry sets on the doors around your house, you’re really looking at a choice between mortise and tubular style lock systems. While tubular systems are popular and found in both residential and business applications, you should know why mortise locks offer higher security for doors in both businesses and homes before making your choice.
Tubular locks gained general popularity because they are quicker to fit and they do not require special tools or training to install, and are therefore seen as a relatively secure, simple entry system. However, it’s exactly for these reasons that mortise locks offer a greater level of security.
Mortise is a carpentry term meaning a slot or recess cut out of a piece of wood, so that another piece with a matching projection can be fitted into it, making a tight joint (mortise and tenon joint.) A mortise type lock similarly fits into a recess cut into the edge of a door, as opposed to a Rim Lock that is fitted onto the surface of a door.
For a mortise style entry system, the door itself is cut to include a pocket where the lock is installed. By placing the lock into this pocket inside the door, you’re creating a secure system that uses the strength of the door (plus the reinforcement of the lock’s construction) to protect it from break-ins. A mortise lock has up to five times more strength!
Builders and installers don’t like fitting mortice locks so they persuade home owners to use tubular latches instead! Whilst the initial investment may be a little more – what is your safety worth?
– Usually a lifetime warranty
– Up to 5 times stronger than a tubular latch
– Anti drill and tamper proof – hardened cylinder
– Larger dead bolt throw – 40% stronger
– Heavy duty spring and mechanism – stronger spring which stops the handle sagging
– Peace of mind
– Comes with integrated deadbolt
– Much stronger outer housing
– Screws thread right through using tie bolts that sandwich the mortise lock between the timber of the door from both sides.
– Mortise locks can be fitted with a euro cylinder enabling a minimum of 2,000 key differs, which means a thief would have to carry 2,000 keys for your make of lock to be certain of unlocking your door and even then he could be there for 3 hours trying all the keys before he gets lucky!
If you’re handy around the house or have access to the equipment you need, you’re probably safe to install your own mortise locks. However, there’s no harm in calling in an expert if you’re looking for absolute piece of mind.
You may consider using a professional installer, because:
– Not all mortise locks are the same, so you require specific measurements for optimum security.
– Some mortise locks suit interior doors better than others.
– Different kinds of mortise locks include single or double cylinder, or dummy sets.
– A professional installer will use specialized tools like a mortise saw to cut into the door.
– Most installations come with some manner of guarantee.
All hinges are not the same. If you want a beautifully smooth operation for years to come, then choosing quality hinges is essential. Zanda stocks premium double ball bearing, stainless steel, 3mm and 3.5mm thick, butt hinges as standard because they make even very heavy doors feel light. Stainless steel has superior hardness, is highly tarnish resistant and provides extremely long life.
They are available in stainless steel, gold or black colour options, made exclusively to Zanda’s specifications. The standard size for most doors is 100mm x 75mm. They are also available in 100 x 100, 100 x 125, 100 x 150 and 100 x 200.
Wherever possible you should use the shortest hinges that will meet your needs. Large hinges, particularly parliament hinge designs and those over 100 x 125mm are prone to sag over time due to metal fatigue which increases with the weight of the doors. Zanda also carries a range of hirline and other specialized hinges where required.
Your insurance company will have more say in your choice of locks than you will. Normally you will not be covered beyond a fixed threshold if you do not have keyed locks on all windows and doors, and this usually requires a deadlock on all doors often with keyed operation on both sides. It is important you ascertain your insurer’s requirements before selecting your hardware as requirements vary greatly. Broadly speaking however, locks fall into four categories
Rim locks refer to surface mounted locks that are fully exposed on one face of the door. They are less aesthetic than other options but are often cheaper to buy and easier to fit. Rim locks often use a skeleton type key, which provides a poor level of security compared to the pin tumbler cylinders. Some heritage work requires rim locks to match existing or keep the traditional look, but generally rim locks are only used for secondary applications including batwing verandah doors and gates.
Cylinder locks are commonly used in new building work as they are inexpensive and easy to install. They require a single hole drilled front to back through the door with a secondary hole at right angles through to the locking edge of the door to carry the throw latch. Cylinder locks can come with a presentation handle built in but generally have a simple knob or lever both sides. They lack the presentation options available with mortice locks but are the carpenter’s favourite for internal work due to their ease of fitting.
Drop bolt locks are fitted at the top and/or bottom of the door and can be keyed, non-keyed or electronically operated. They are either flush fitted, surface mounted or set into internal mortices in the door (called rack bolts). Drop bolt locks only operate from inside and are therefore most useful for non-entry joinery (e.g. bifolds, sliders, french doors etc.).
In general, all insurance companies demand higher levels of security when their potential liability increases. They will usually demand a deadlock on all external doors but you need to check whether your own insurer requires a single or double cylinder deadlock. A single cylinder deadlock will allow you to use a turnsnib on the inside for convenience, whereas a double cylinder deadlock will require the inconvenience of keyed operation from both sides. Some insurance companies will allow a single cylinder deadlock and turnsnibs (which is much better for fire escape) provided you have a security alarm system installed.
More than 60% of house burglaries occur by entry through windows and therefore most insurers require a key operated lock on every window. If your house does not comply with these requirements you may be unaware that your insurance cover may be negated.
Other options such as restricted or registered keys (where keys cannot be duplicated) are also available for our locks. Ask our hardware specialists about those requirements.
Yes. The high polish of Brass products are often treated with a clear protective coating to provide durability. Brass, like sterling silver, will gradually tarnish and take on an antique appearance. Atmospheric conditions, caustic agents such as paints, or scratches from sharp objects may cause the protective coating to crack or peel causing spotting and discolorations.
However, the beauty of the metal can be maintained by taking a few simple steps. Initial care for brass requires only a quick rub with Wax Polish and light buffing with a soft cloth. You may prefer to do this weekly, especially in exterior, often used or damp environments. “Blue Magic” Metal Polish is a quick, effective way of restoring mildly tarnished brassware.
If heavy discoloration occurs the finish can be restored by stripping the remaining lacquer and polishing regularly with “Blue Magic”. Alternatively let it age naturally to an antique finish. The beauty of solid brass is that it can always be restored to its original lustre.
Yes. It is somewhat ironic that a steel called stainless does actually stain! To aid the longevity and appearance of stainless steel products it must be cleaned regularly or use a metal polish such as “Blue Magic” which can be applied periodically.
Atmospheric conditions, salt deposits, acids, caustic agents, cement or dust on construction sites all have the potential to cause discolouration to the surface – known as tea staining. If this occurs do not be concerned as usually this is not the stainless steel itself but particles clinging to its surface.
There are numerous things that affect the likelihood of tea staining. Firstly, you need to choose the correct hardware for your application. Some environments are particularly likely to cause tea staining in stainless steel if wrong products are used, i.e. coastal locations. Other environments will be absolutely fine with normal tea stain resistant hardware.
The grade of stainless used is one factor in tea stain resistance. Many manufacturers use standard 304 grade stainless steel which, in most environments is suitable, in Australia it is not resistant enough to staining. 316 stainless is much more resistant to tea staining. Zanda only uses 316 marine grade stainless steel. However, choosing 316 in severe coastal positions is not a rock solid guarantee that you will not get tea staining.
All the other factors for tea stain resistance need to be considered including maintenance. One of these factors is how highly polished the surface is. Highly polished surfaces improve the resistance to tea staining. Some hardware is highly polished to a mirror finish and others have a more matt or brushed look. The level of finishing is purely aesthetic. The less shiny the finish, the less tea stain resistance the item will have.
Cleaning can be as simple as firmly wiping the product with a damp cloth occasionally. The level of exposure to the elements is another major factor in the incidence of tea staining. Stainless steel outside, fully exposed to the elements, will be more resistant to tea staining than exactly the same piece of stainless that is moderately protected by awnings or eaves. This is because cleaning is such an important factor in preventing tea staining. Surprisingly, the simple fact of rainwater periodically washing the stainless steel significantly reduces tea staining.
If you do find tea staining on your stainless steel, it can only be on the surface so removal is surprisingly simple. Typically most tea staining will be easily removed by applying Inox or another brand of tea stain remover and firmly rubbing with a cloth. For more stubborn tea staining, apply Inox and leave for 5 or 10 minutes, then firmly rub with a cloth.
Never use steel wool to remove tea staining. It will produce dramatically fast removal of tea staining but at the cost of forcing carbon fibres into stainless steel, resulting in carbon rust later on.
The product can be revived by following the above maintenance procedure and repeating regularly. This small amount of routine care can only preserve the elegance of stainless steel hardware. For further information on care & maintenance of stainless steel products please visit: http://www.assda.asn.au/technical-info/technical-faqs/preventing-coastal-corrosion-tea-staining
Many products are made from aluminium today. Aluminium has a very high durability, a high strength to weight ratio and is light and corrosion resistant. Simple steps need to be carried out, despite the materials excellent properties, to maintain its appearance, avoid staining and the damage to the product.
Regular cleaning and maintenance to remove any build-up of dirt needs to be carried out in order to keep the surface looking pristine. Leaving it unmaintained for an extended period of time may cause staining which may require a harsher cleaning product that may in time damage and diminish the appearance of your décor. Light dirt should simply be removed using a sponge, lukewarm water and a neutral cleaning agent or you can use ‘blue magic’.
Many handles are made of zinc alloy (otherwise known as Zamac or Zinc diecast)) which is an ideal material for die casting and allows for very intricate designs. One advantage of Zinc Alloy is the ability to electroplate it allowing a multitude of finishes.
The care and maintenance of Zinc Alloy is similar to other materials requiring regular maintenance. It is recommended to clean handles and knobs with luke warm soapy water and a soft, clean cloth. Ideally best to be carried out at regular intervals. At least every two months but more often if near the coast or in a corrosive or dusty environment.
Avoid using household cleaners containing damaging chemicals and never use abrasive scouring pads. These chemical cleaning agents are NOT suitable as it may cause a reaction and will damage the finish of the handles.
The effects of ultra violet light, pollution, dirt, grime and salt deposits can all accumulate on your powder coated surface over time. To extend the effective life or powder coatings and protect any warranty requirements that may exist, a very simple regular maintenance program should be implemented for the removal of any residues.
As a general rule, cleaning should take place every six months. However, in areas where pollutants are more prevalent, especially in coastal or industrial regions, a cleaning program should be carried out on a more frequent basis (i.e. every three months). To clean your powder coated surface:
1. Carefully remove any loose deposits with a wet sponge.
2. Use a soft brush (non-abrasive) or cloth, and a mild household detergent solution to remove dust, salt and other deposits.
3. Rinse off with clean fresh water.
Detergents that recommend the use of gloves when handling should be avoided as this is a good indication that the detergent is harsh and, therefore, unsuitable for cleaning your powder coating. Although some strong solvents are recommended for removing sealants or other building residues, these may be harmful to the extended life of the powder coated surface and should also be avoided as the damage may not be visible immediately and may take up to twelve months to appear. If paint splashes, sealants or other residue need to be removed, then either Methylated Spirits, Turpentine, or White Spirits may be used safely.
When doors are hung, the side on which the doors are hinged can affect the lock or the components of the lock. This is because some hardware cannot be flipped over or reversed. For this reason some hardware has left and right versions. This is referred to as the “handing”. Sometimes whether the door is inward or outward opening also affects whether left or right hardware is required.
There are numerous types of metal plating finishes available today – far too many to list. There are flat finishes such as mat with black being a current favourite. The list below provides the most common finishes used and specified in Australia today.
There are the newer antique finishes that deliver the unique aesthetic of an aged finish for the discerning hardware connoisseur. These are intended to simulate the natural and inconsistent qualities that come with tarnish and age, Antique Brass and Antique Nickel finishes are the result of carefully handcrafted process that have been thoroughly refined.
The advantages are that the final product is beautifully finished, is much smoother and is far more corrosion resistant. With many handles, they corrode because of porosity (tiny holes in the surface of the material) that cannot be seen by the naked eye. In poor quality handles, porosity can sometimes even be seen! Porosity allows the moisture from the environment or our hands to enter and because of the inherent acid, the handles corrode. Micronisation prevents this from occurring.
Antique Brass and Antique Nickel finishes will maintain their original appearance and are not considered “living” finishes. When considering Antique Finishes, the user should be aware these finishes will exhibit variation in colour and shade just as an actual tarnished piece of brass or nickel would show. Curved and shaped surfaces will show greater contrast and Slight variations can also be expected from one piece to the next.
Finish variations – from different manufacturers & suppliers
When choosing new hardware, options are key. Variation in finish from brand to brand is inevitable. Company A’s brushed nickel may look completely different to company B’s brushed nickel. It is therefore very important that specifiers and consumers are aware of this when selecting products.
Finish variations – door and cabinet hardware
One other problem relates to matching the door hardware with the cabinet hardware. Mostly there is no coordination of door and cabinet hardware selection. The builder normally supplies the door hardware and the cabinet maker supplies the cabinet hardware. Where this often plays out is when the two are finally put together and the discrepancy is noticed. By then it is always too late and the end user is often left dissatisfied.
Therefore be aware of this and where possible, it is by far the best option to ensure that the door hardware and cabinet hardware are selected from the one manufacturer. This ensures consistency in both style and finish.
There is an increasing demand for electronic locking methods in houses and a growing variety of options on offer. Broadly speaking, they fall into the following categories:
• Keypad operation
• Remote push button operation
• Proximity readers and swipe cards
• Fingerprint I.D. operation
The most important consideration is whether the chosen system requires permanent wiring either through the door or in the strike plate, or whether it is simply battery operated. Systems with integral wiring are expensive to install but have the advantage of being able to be connected to alarm and intercom systems. It is usually difficult to install wiring after the door is manufactured and therefore you need to forewarn the joinery before fabrication if you need special wiring installed. The advantages of electronic locks are:
• No need for conventional keys and improved security
• Remote access possible that can be linked to security & intercom systems
• Ability to change codes without requiring a locksmith or other specialist.
The major disadvantage of electronic locks is the high initial cost and their vulnerability to power supply interruptions (back up power supplies required). The fire escape capability of individual systems also needs to be assessed. However, the Zanda Stealth deadbolt is battery operated meaning that;
• It is not affected by power outages
• Can be retro fitted
• No messy and expensive wiring
• Manual override in case of emergency
• Key override in the event of a flat battery
With sliding or bi-folding doors or windows you may require flush fitted hardware with minimal projections if it is not to interfere with the operation of the doors or sashes adjacent. Zanda carries a range of flush fittings for most applications that come in finishes to complement the hanging hardware.
Sliding doors will require some form of parrots beak lock or proprietory catch to suit their opening action. It is usually preferable to discuss your requirements with a hardware specialist to ensure you get hardware appropriate for your needs.
Visca: Lifetime warranty
Astron: Lifetime warranty
Triad: 15 year warranty
Futura: 15 year warranty
Jura Elite: 10 year warranty
Jura: 10 year warranty
Zanda however, assumes no liability under this warranty for the following:
• Improper installation or failure to follow fitting instructions.
• Failure due to improper maintenance or fair wear and tear.
• Indirect or consequential loss or damage, cost of removal and/or replacement.
• Cost of freight and /or travelling time.
• Any modification to a product as supplied.
• All finishes may experience minor deterioration under some climatic conditions and normal everyday use, which is excluded from this warranty.
For further details full information is available under the warranty section on our web site.
There are two types of interior handles most commonly used i.e. a lever on rose or a back plate lever door handle. With a lever rose handle you need a separate thumb turn fitted to the door and with the back plated handle the thumb turn will be part of the plate itself (assembly needed usually). The thumb turn is always placed on the inside of the door and the outside is an emergency release slot that can be operated by a coin or similar.
• A mortice deadlock used in conjunction with a night latch.
• A double locking night latch can be used for extra security, usually where doors have a glass panel fitted.
• When double locked by turning the key a full turn, the handle cannot be operated and the bolt is deadlocked, requiring the key to unlock it. A double locking night latch foils the glass breaking intruder should the mortice deadlock be unlocked.
• A door viewer is a good addition to security as it allows you to identify callers before opening the door. These usually come with two different viewing angles, 160° and 180°. The 160° viewer allows you to see the callers face whereas the 180° viewer allows you to view the caller and the area around them, particularly useful if there was anyone hiding either side of the front door. Viewers are normally fitted in the centre of your front door at eye level height.
• A door chain is easily fitted and effectively prevents a “foot in the door” forced entry. Always use the door chain if you are unsure of a caller’s identity.
• Hinge bolts can be used for added protection on outward opening hinged wooden doors. The hinge bolts protect the hinge from being forced and prevent the door from being removed from the frame.
• Remember locks and chains are only as good as the door they are fitted to. Make sure your door and frame are of good solid construction.
1. Single bolt through – the pull is on one side of the door only and is fixed with a bolt passing through the door from the rear. The bolt head may be covered with a push plate or recessed into the door face and filled.
2. Single face fix – the pull is on one side of the door only and is fixed directly to the face using concealed fixings.
3. Back to back pair – pull handles on both sides of the door, fitted with a concealed fixing.